In terms of geological history, Annamite Range has established a continental regime from the beginning of the Paleozoic era (about 550 million years ago) with the formation of red continental debris sedimentary rocks that are clearly visible in the Central Highlands and in Quy Nhon city (Mot mountain).

Differentiation of the typical dry season and rainy season makes a very special and unique ecosystem in Southeast Asia, that is the dipterocarp forest ecosystem with the predominance of large groups of Dipterocarpaceae and large mammals. In the Central Highlands, the total area of dipterocarp forest reaches 500,000 hectares. The mountainous forests and coniferous vegetation around Kon Ka Kinh and Kon Cha Rang (Gia Lai) nature reserves, natural forests in Dak To, Kon Plong and Dak Glei (Kon Tum) districts still recorded Indochinese tigers, yellow deer, Annamite muntjac (Muntiacus truongsonensis), red-cheeked gibbons and some endemic birds of the Kon Tum plateau.

Annamite Range Peak runs along the Laos-Vietnam border. The transition zone is quite narrow in the North-South direction, only within Quang Nam-Da Nang. The limestone landscape is rare (only found in Ngu Hanh Son and An Diem), and the granite mountain landscape of the South Annamite Range type is not common. The fauna and flora is transitional between the two parts of the South and the North of the Annamite Range including 5 districts of Hien, Nam Giang, Phuoc Son, Que Son, Tra My (Quang Nam) and An Son Forest Enterprise. Elephants and Edwards’s pheasant (Lophura edwardsi), Saola, Annamite muntjac (Muntiacus truongsonensis), bison,  Annamite striped rabbit, gray-shanked douc, Crested Argus are still preserved here.

The southern Annamite Range Peak bends close to the sea, creating two different East and West slopes: the eastern slopes of southern Annamite Range are very steep, characterized by the An Khe, Chu Dju, Tay Khanh Hoa, and Chu Yang Sin mountain ranges. The slopes of these mountain ranges and masses slope down to the coastal plains from Quang Nam to Binh Thuan. Truong Son Nam is the kingdom of granite with bare mountain slopes, full of giant, round, purple-blue rocks, sprawling from the foot to the top of the mountain. Differentiation of the typical dry season and the rainy season makes a special and unique dipterocarp forest ecosystem in Southeast Asia, specially Central Highlands which has a total dipterocarp forest area of 500,000 hectares.

There are still Indochina tigers, yellow deer, Annamite muntjac, red-cheeked gibbon, Kon Tum highland birds in the Fokienia forest areas around Kon Ka Kinh and Kon Cha Rang nature reserves (Gia Lai), natural forests in Dak To, Kon Plong and Dak Glei districts (Kon Tum)


Annamite Range ‘s nature is in a state of increasingly serious degradation. The problem requires upgrading the management level to have strict sanctions on law enforcement, carefully consider the environmental safety of investment programs and projects, and turn management into a self-management community through the application of customary laws and local conventions where possible. Protection and sustainable management of the Annamite Range is to ensure environmental and ecological security for all three countries on the Indochina peninsula. The Truong Son Range is not only a genetic reserve and natural enemies of coastal plains habitats

The Center for Nature Conservation and Development

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